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Putin Withdraws Russia’s Ratification of Nuclear Test Ban Treaty

Utkarsh Classes 03-11-2023
Putin Withdraws Russia’s Ratification of Nuclear Test Ban Treaty Agreements and MoU 5 min read

President Vladimir Putin signed laws to remove Russia's ratification of the worldwide treaty prohibiting nuclear testing. Russia claims that its withdrawal from the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) is only intended to bring Russia in line with the United States. The move demonstrates the key gulf between the United States and Russia. The US-Russia relationship is at its lowest point since the 1962 Cuban missile crisis over the Ukraine war. Russia, which has the world's greatest nuclear arsenal, may be edging closer to a nuclear test in order to get a hold on the Ukrainian War. 

About Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT)

  • The United Nations enacted the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) in 1996 with the goal of outlawing the use of nuclear weapons for either military or non-military reasons.  
  • The CTBT was negotiated and accepted by the United Nations General Assembly at the Geneva Conference on Disarmament.
  • The convention must be ratified by 44 nations that have nuclear technology.
  • It was available for signing in 1996, and since then, 182 nations have signed the Treaty.
  • Trinidad and Tobago signed the CTBT in 2009 and 2010.
  • Ghana is the most recent country to ratify the CTBT in 2011.
  • India, Pakistan and North Korea have not signed the treaty yet. 

Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT)

Opened for signature

September 10, 1996 in New York

Entered into force

Not Yet In Force 

Conditions for entry into force

The pact will enter into force 180 days after all 44 nations have approved it.



Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO)

  • The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) was founded in 1996.
  • It employs around 260 people from CTBT Member States and sets a verification framework to ensure that the Treaty is followed.
  • Headquarter- Vienna 

Key countries haven’t ratified CTBT

  • Despite adoption of CTBT, there are certain countries which have not ratified the nuclear treaty.
  • The countries yet to ratify the agreement are: 
    • China
    • Egypt
    • Iran
    • Israel
    • The United States

Name of the Countries with Nuclear Weapons 2023

As of 2023, there are 9 countries which have developed Nuclear  warheads. Among these countries Russia has the largest number of Nuclear weapons while the data for North Korea shows that there are no Nuclear warheads operating in North Korea. Following table shows number of countrie shaving Nuclear warheads along with the number of Nuclear warheads active in that country:



Number of  nuclear warheads



United States of America






United Kingdom 








North Korea 


It has material to develop 40-50 nuclear warheads

Other Important facts

  • Russia and the US signed the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty in 1996, but the US did not approve the agreement until 2000.
  • Russia has not conducted a nuclear test since the end of the Soviet Union. 
  • The Soviet Union last conducted a nuclear test in 1990, and the United States in 1992. 
  • Except for North Korea, no country has performed a nuclear explosive test this century.
  • Other nations, including China, Israel, Iran, and North Korea, failed to complete their commitment to the deal.


Answer. The Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty came into force in September 1996.

Answer. Countries that have not ratified the CTBT are China, Egypt, Iran, Israel, The United States etc.

Answer. The CTBT treaty was made available for signature on 24 September 1996.

Answer: The Commission for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organisation (CTBTO) is in charge of guaranteeing the implementation of CTBT.

Answer. 9 Countries have Nuclear Weapons in 2023.

Answer. Russia and the US signed the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty in 1996.

Answer. The world's greatest nuclear arsenal is located in Russia.
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