Every year, November 20 is observed as World Children's Day. World Children's Day is observed to increase awareness about children's rights worldwide and improve children's welfare worldwide. World Children's Day is UNICEF's annual day of action for children by children.
In India, November 14 is observed as 'National Children's Day'. November 14 is the birth anniversary of India's first Prime Minister, Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru.
World Children's Day was earlier observed as Universal Children's Day. It was first observed in 1954.
The day of November 20 holds special significance for children's rights worldwide.
The United Nations General Assembly passed a resolution to adopt the "Declaration of the Rights of the Child" on November 20, 1959,
Further, on November 20 1989, the United Nations General Assembly adopted the Convention on the Rights of the Child.
November 20 1990, also marked the anniversary of the United Nations General Assembly's adoption of the Declaration of the Rights of the Children and the Convention on Children's Rights.
The theme of World Children's Day 2023: For every child, every right
The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Children 1989, which came into force in 1990, defines a child as a person below 18 years of age.
In India, the 'Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection of Children) Act 2015' defines a child as a person who is under 18 years of age.
The 86th Constitution Amendment Act, 2002 inserted Article 21-A in the Constitution" to provide free and compulsory education to all children in the age group of six to fourteen years as a Fundamental Right in such a manner as the State may, by law, determine."
To implement the 86th Amendment Act provision, parliament passed the 'Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education (RTE) Act in 2009'.
Article 21-A and the RTE Act were implemented on April 1, 2010.
Article 45 of the Indian constitution states, "The state shall endeavour to provide early childhood care and education for all children until they complete the age of six years.".
Child Rights Week is celebrated across India from November 14-20, from National Children's Day to World Children's Day.
June 4: International Day of Innocent Children Victims of Aggression
June 12: World Day Against Child Labour
August 12: International Youth Day
October 11: International Day of the Girl Child
UNICEF was set up as the United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund by the United Nations on December 11 1946. UNICEF was set up to meet the emergency needs of children in post-war Europe and China.
The mandate of UNICEF was expanded in 1950, and its area of operation was extended to meet the long-term needs of children and women in developing countries worldwide. UNICEF was made a permanent part of the United Nations system in 1953. Its name was changed to United Nations Children's Fund. However, UNICEF retained its original acronym.
Headquarters: New York, the United States of America
Executive Director: Catherine Russell