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India's Nuclear Energy Roadmap: 1 Lakh MW by 2047

Utkarsh Classes Last Updated 04-04-2024
India's Nuclear Energy Roadmap: 1 Lakh MW by 2047 Report 4 min read

India aims to increase its nuclear power production from the current level of over 8,000 MW to 1 lakh MW by 2047, according to a report titled 'Synchronising Energy Transitions Towards Possible Net Zero for India: Affordable and Clean Energy for All'. 

  • The report was necessary as previous studies on India's energy transition had overlooked nuclear power, citing high costs and public resistance. 
  • The Department of Atomic Energy is preparing a vision document for 'Amrit Kaal', which includes plans to reach a nuclear capacity of approximately 100 GW by 2047. 
  • Breeder reactors would contribute 3 GW of nuclear power, while 17.6 GW would come from light water reactors built with international cooperation, and another 40-45 GW would come from pressurized heavy water reactors.

About key findings of report 

  • The report suggests that if India wants to phase out coal use over the next three decades, it should build infrastructure for alternative sources such as nuclear power, and flexible grid infrastructure to support renewable energy and storage should be constructed.
  • It also advises that if India continues to rely on coal, it should explore carbon dioxide technologies (CDRs), such as bioenergy with carbon capture and storage (BECCS) and CCUS, to understand their long-term potential.

About Nuclear energy

Nuclear energy comes from the core of atoms, which is made up of protons and neutrons. This energy can be created in two ways: fission - when atoms' nuclei split into several parts - and fusion - when nuclei join together. Today, the world generates electricity from nuclear fission, while electricity generation from fusion is still in the research and development phase.

Main types of nuclear reactor in India

Pressurized water reactor (PWR)

Pressurized Water Reactors (PWRs) are the most common type. They are used for power generation in around 300 reactors and for naval propulsion in several hundred more. The design of PWRs was originally used for submarine power plants. Ordinary water as both coolant and moderator are used in PWR.

Boiling water reactor (BWR)

This type of reactor is similar to the PWR, but there's only one circuit in which the water is at lower pressure than the usual. This causes it to boil in the core at around 285°C. The reactor works with 12-15% of the water in the top part of the core as steam. This has a less moderating effect and efficiency.

Pressurized heavy water reactor (PHWR)

The PHWR reactor was developed in Canada as CANDU in the 1950s and in India since the 1980s. PHWRs use natural uranium oxide as fuel, which requires heavy water (D2O) as a more efficient moderator.


Answer: 8,000 MW to 1 lakh MW by 2047
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