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'Maratha Military Landscapes' Will Be In India's Nomination for UNESCO

Utkarsh Classes 30-01-2024
'Maratha Military Landscapes' Will Be In India's Nomination for UNESCO Art and Culture 5 min read

The Maratha Military Landscapes of India have been selected as India's nomination for recognition on the UNESCO World Heritage List in 2024-25.

  • The twelve component parts of this nomination are Salher Fort, Shivneri Fort, Khanderi Fort, Raigad, Pratapgad, Suvarnadurg, Lohgad, Panhala Fort, Vijay Durg, Sindhudurg in Maharashtra and Gingee Fort in Tamil Nadu.
  • The Maratha Empire was spread across different geographical and physiographic regions, demonstrating the military power.

About Maratha Military Landscapes

  • The Maratha Military Landscapes of India were developed between the 17th and 19th centuries. 
  • These landscapes represent an unmatched fortification and military system that was envisioned by the Maratha rulers. 
  • This system consists of a network of forts that vary in hierarchies, scales and typological features. 
  • It is a result of joining the landscape, territorial area and physiographic characteristics that are differ to the Sahyadri mountain ranges, the Konkan Coast, The Deccan Plateau and the Eastern Ghats in the Indian Peninsula.
  • The inception of the Maratha Military ideology originated in the 17th Century during the reign of Maratha King Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj by 1670 CE. The same continued through following rules until Peshwa rule till 1818 CE.

World Heritage Site

  • A World Heritage Site is a place that has been acknowledged by UNESCO for its significant cultural or physical value. 
  • These sites are part of the 'World Heritage Programme,' which is overseen by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee. 
  • The committee is responsible for maintaining the list of World Heritage Sites and ensuring their protection and preservation for future generations. 
  • India has a total of 42 UNESCO Heritage Sites. 34 are of cultural importance, 7 are natural and 1 has a combination of both cultural and natural significance.

About United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO)

  • Founded on November 16, 1945. 
  • Members: 195 Members and 8 Associate Members. 
  • Management: General Conference and an Executive Board headed by the Director General
  • Director-General:  Ms Audrey Azoulay 
  • Headquarters: Paris
  • Aim: To contribute in building a peaceful culture, sustainable development, poverty eradication and intercultural dialogue. Which can be achieved through education, culture, science, communication and information. 
  • Categories: 
    • Cultural heritage sites include various historic buildings, town sites, important archaeological sites and works of monumental sculpture and painting. For instance, Dholavira is a Harappan City.
    • Natural heritage sites are restricted to areas with ecological and evolutionary processes, unique natural characters, home to species which are in danger. For example, the Great Himalayan National Park Conservation Area.
    • Mixed heritage sites have cultural and natural significance, like Khangchendzonga National Park.
  • Nomination Process: According to the Operational Guidelines of UNESCO in 2019, any monument or site must be put on the Tentative List (TL) for a year before it can be included for the final nomination list. 
    • Once the nomination is made, it is sent to the World Heritage Centre (WHC), which will conduct a technical review of the submission.


Answer: 12

Answer: Ms Audrey Azoulay

Answer: Paris

Answer: 17th and 19th centuries
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