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Martyr's Day (30 January): Date, History & Significance

Utkarsh Classes Last Updated 30-01-2024
Martyr's Day (30 January): Date, History & Significance Important Day 4 min read

India celebrates January 30 as Martyrs' Day to pay tribute to all those freedom fighters who sacrificed their lives for the country.

  • The day is also marked as the death anniversary of the country's 'Bapu', Mahatma Gandhi.
  • On this day in 1948, Nathuram Godse assassinated Mahatma Gandhi at Birla House in New Delhi.
  • Martyrs' Day is celebrated by paying tribute to the mausoleum of Mahatma Gandhi at Rajghat in Delhi.
  • The President, Vice President, Prime Minister, Defence Minister and all three service chiefs (Army, Air Force and Navy) pay homage to the 'Father of the Nation'.


  • The significance of Martyrs' Day lies in the fact that Mahatma Gandhi led major movements against British rule through a non-violent approach.
  • His philosophy was based on the principles of non-violence, fighting for truth (Satyagraha), political and personal freedom (Swaraj) and his principles inspired millions of people.

About Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi:

  • Birth: October 2, 1869, Porbandar (Gujarat)
    • This day is celebrated as the International Day of Non-Violence.
  • Ideology: He believed in the ideas of truth, non-violence, honesty, caring for nature, the welfare of Dalits etc.
  • Political Guru: Gopal Krishna Gokhale
  • Death: 30 January 1948

Gandhi in South Africa:

  • Mahatma Gandhi left India for South Africa in April 189,  at the age of 23.
  • Gandhiji arrived in India on 9 January 1915. 9 January is celebrated every year as 'Pravasi Bharatiya Diwas'.

Contribution to India's Freedom Struggle -

  • Champaran Satyagraha (1917), First Civil Disobedience, Ahmedabad Mill Strike (1918), Kheda Satyagraha (1918)
  • Nationwide mass movements – Rowlatt Act (1919), Non-cooperation Movement (1920 – 22), Civil Disobedience Movement (1930), Quit India Movement (1942)
  • Gandhi-Irwin Pact (1931) - Before the Second Round Table Conference in London on 5 March 1931, a political agreement between Mahatma Gandhi and the Viceroy Lord Irwin was called Gandhi-Irwin Pact. It is also called "Delhi Pact".

Books -

  • Hind Swaraj, Experiments with Truth (Autobiography)

Weekly magazines: 

  • Young India, Harijan, Navjeevan, Indian Opinion

Other Martyrs' Days in India:

23 March

  • On this day, Bhagat Singh, Shivram Rajguru and Sukhdev Thapar were hanged by the British in Lahore jail.

19th May

  • It is celebrated in Assam in memory of those killed by the state police on May 19, 1961.
  • This day was named Language Martyrs' Day.

17 November

  • Odisha celebrates this day to remember the famous freedom fighter Lala Lajpat Rai on his death anniversary.

24 November

  • It is celebrated as Martyr's Day by the Sikh community as it is the death anniversary of the ninth Sikh Guru, Tegh Bahadur.
  • He opposed the forced conversion of non-Muslims and was assassinated by the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb in the year 1675.


Answer. 30 January

Answer. Nathuram Godse on 30 January 1948

Answer. 2 October

Answer. Gopal Krishna Gokhale
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